Ray- It's rather a clever system, and there was a number of different makers, the pieces from which were not--for the most part- interchangeable, although I think they all work on the same principle.
The saw blade has a gullet where each tooth goes, and this gullet has a slight spiral shape. The rear of the gullet has a male V in the back side. The tooth has a corresponding shape with a female V. the tooth cams into the blade and cutting force jams it tight. While some teeth may end up slightly higher than others, the feed rate is usually so high that every tooth takes some wood out. A clever tool grabs the tooth, and a good rap with a hammer removes it when replacement is needed.
I'll see if I can find a tooth out in the shop, and if I can I try to show the shape in a close up photo and will attach it to this post.
One thing that was interesting - to me- anyway.
There is a Mennonite father and son that have a commercial (modern, though still circular as opposed to bandsaw) operation near this mill, and when there is an open house one or the other comes over to run this setup. When we were doing all the final settings, the first full depth cut through a log caught their attention, and the father said "It chust daunt slow down!" Their mill, with a big honking diesel, does slow some when it "gets into the cut" but the tremendous torque--albeit a small fraction of the horsepower--of the water wheel just pulls the blade along. Blade speed of both mills is approximately the same. Torque wins over horsepower every time.
____________________ Fix it again, Mr Gates--it still works!"
Incredible ! The amount of time & effort someone will spend typing/photo inserting - just to get out of wrapping the Christmas presents !.
Nice work Herb, that crown wheel/pinion/friction drive disc system looks so C19th but no doubt it did the job.